Manuel Garcia Solá
Genetic Center Director General of the Coast
In search of an opportunity
Manuel Garcia Sola Genetic Center Director General of the Coast, in a note to Clarín Rural exclusive giving the advantages of creating a national platform of genetic selection.
With the technical collaboration of Mr. Marcelo Nievas and Medical Vet. Fernando Pereyra
Manuel Garcia Sola Director General of Coastal Genetic Center says that despite the investments materialize annually in bovine genetics, there is a marked delay in selection programs. To this end, he proposes the creation of a National Platform for Genomic Selection, so that farmers can decide about which incorporate genetic material, through a scientific diagnosis.
The Argentine cattle herd consists of about 27 million bellies, of which approximately 24.3 million are beef cattle and 2.7 million are dairy breeds.
Rodeo meat are bred no more than 4% of the total, about 970,000 females. The other 23.3 million are served by approximately 1,165,000 bulls. Argentine Ranchers replenished 25% of these males each year, or about 291,250 bulls, which, at an average cost of U $ S 2,500 each, represent a total annual investment of almost $ S 730 million.
Argentine dairy herd is inseminated nearly half of the cows, ie 1.35 million females. The remaining 68,000 are served by bulls. The replacement of 17,000 bulls a year to U $ S 2,000 each, requires that all dairy farmers invest over $ S / year 34 million addition, it takes about three million doses of semen of milk and 1,650,000 beef semen straws for AI to service the females who use this technique, which involves an additional investment of almost $ S 36,000,000.
Adding all the male components that contribute every year to create a new generation of calves, it takes more than U $ S 800 million annual investment in seed material.
That investment (coupled naturally to representing the female rodeo, which is close to the U $ S 38 billion) should allow us to produce annually about 23 million calves, but for different reasons (from a nutritional and reproductive health from to management, through climatic) produce only around 12.5 million, or left without producing more than 10 million head.
One wonders what causes this investment progress from one generation to the other. This has to do with genetics that parents transfer their children. For example, the children of such a father and mother born so easily, or that the children of such cow bull become better so the same amount of grass in more and better meat or milk is related to the use made of tools and management knowledge of the laws of genetics and genomics allows to predict and keep improving productivity systematically integrated rodeo.
The bulk of Argentine ranchers parents still elect their future rodeos for their family trees. And to those ancestors, when they are known-are scored by outward appearances or phenotype, say, in Creole for “the look”. Why are so important competitions such as Palermo, or the National Exhibitions of each of the races. But the discoverer of the laws of genetics, the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel in 1865 and explained that from one generation to another transfer no more than 30% of the characters of the parents.
In livestock, the next step to that selection by the rising was the selection by descendants: that is keeping track of the children of such a father, for, from what is expressed in the sons and daughters this or that character, to discard or selecting better parents who transmit that trait.
Obviously, the reliability of that information depends on the one hand, of the impartiality with which data is collected, it is not the same data that the owners bring the animals to be independent and impartial third party who the measure, and, on the other hand, the number of offspring that are evaluated and their territorial dispersion. This selection by descent in dairy breeds, raised the reliability of information for some characters (the production, for example) to more than 75% with the first generation of girls and more than 90% with the 2nd and 3rd litter.
Each bull that is measured in this way costs U $ S 50,000 of maintenance and after 5 years over 90% sacrificed and discarded his semen. But obviously the 10% who survive and whose semen is to be sold, transferred production traits, morphological and functional make the next generation always surpasses its predecessor.
Crossing that for decades systematized data chromosomal regions of genome allowed discovery predictors race today, the birth of a calf anticipate possible with over 70% reliability almost all characters of economic importance to the producer an animal: up 3 years ago, was a must wait five years, now the birth! So parents are chosen in the Northern Hemisphere. In Argentina, however, continue selecting photos from the catalogs or from DEP’s (Differences Expected Progeny) whose data, in general, and despite the enormous efforts made by many associations and excellent geneticists we are voluntarily provided by the owners of the cabins producing the Bulls.
Obviously it annual investment of over 800 million U $ S does not warrant that from one generation to another, our rodeos progress in factors that are able to transform into more and more efficient and profitable farms.
This dramatic delay in developing breeding programs, we are condemning. Today we have an opportunity and if we were able to combine efforts of business actors and breeding livestock and the state could develop a National Platform Genomic Selection to enable all farmers to decide which is the genetic material that is incorporated into your herd , from a scientific diagnosis of their needs.
I’m not naive. I know that plays a Platform as interests. Obviously that does not fall very sympathetic to the system who sells steers like Bulls testicles, having to allocate these animals to meat market and not to play. React quickly, before it’s too late.