The CBI is a mixed farming system implemented in areas of good agricultural potential, based on agriculture intensified high yields associated with bovine breeding livestock intensified throughout their management (animal health, nutrition, genetics, etc.). Food is basically grazing on alfalfa pasture consociated high production basis. The grazing management (forage allowance and pasture breaks) becomes paramount, ensuring the fodder needed to keep many heads per hectare (5 cows / ha) during the life of the pasture. This high load is maintained during lactation and service (spring-summer), and during the dry period (autumn-winter) the cow graze the stubble.
To achieve withstand the high loads of these systems should be implemented pastures on fertile enabling high productivity and forage. Considering the two activities (agriculture and livestock), both are more benefited consociated alfalfa with temperate grasses, because on the one hand provide a nutritionally balanced forage chemical composition for cows, with less risk of filling, and on the other, reduce the risks of low forage production, through cycles of excessive moisture or drought. Furthermore, in this field rotation grazing cycle adds organic matter to the soil chemistry and fertility for the next agricultural period. The great complementation achieved with farming in this system is that during the time of lower nutrient requirements of cows (dry cow) are available stubble or crop residue with vegetation “spontaneous” grows in the cold period , are an excellent source of nutrition for this category.
The CBI system thus proposes the alternative of raising cattle in excellent agricultural soils of the core area maicera-soybean. Just as the application of new technologies to maximize the production of cash crops, this technical proposal aims to allow express the productive potential of breeding herds in agricultural fields, looking for the best complementarity between agricultural and livestock activities. Unlike the proposals classical breeding, are arranged for the best cow productive environments, maximizing stocking and calf production per hectare at low cost, therefore, more economically sustainable production and sustainable mixed in time.
Farmers traditionally called Fields (ravines, low or some limitation to grain production) should possibly continue breeding livestock, to be the most viable production alternative for production circumstances. However, in the areas of greatest agricultural potential within the crop rotation in agriculture-continuous-currently are rethinking the benefits of including pasture cycles, not only to improve soil conditions but also to exert more control over pests, this applies to both proposals of conventional agriculture to planteos-till or conservation managements more.
The technical proposal system level is the intensification of breeding herd management, among others through the better use of high yielding perennial pasture (even without having low fields or ravines). As the system is considered as a whole, the cattle cycle (with animal droppings and roots of legumes) increases in soil organic matter nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients essential for crops after the pastoral cycle . In turn, crop residues or carbohydrate residues contain nitrogenous not to be grazed by the cows become nitrogenous organic material (manure and urine) recovering the consumed fertility agricultural processes while producing meat . Also stands out as another important advantage during stubble would not need the use of herbicides to control winter weeds or “chemical fallow”, keeping the soil microbial life. Thus, with breeding cows can get very good production and economic results in the best fields of the pampas.
The premise basic (see Table 1) suggests that during the period of lactation and service, when cows have the highest nutritional requirements, have perennial pastures of high productivity (15-20 t / ha / year of dry matter) and optimal nutritional quality, covering those needs even with a stocking rate of 5 cows / ha. Later, at the end of lactation, during the dry period when significantly lower in nutritional needs, the bellies graze the stubble of corn and soybeans, at which time you may rest more pastures do not produce enough to cover even lower the nutritional requirements of dry cows.
For optimal management of breeding herds with high loads per hectare is fundamental proper grazing management, ensuring adequate fodder for cows in full lactation with the need for additional energy to restart their reproductive activity during service. Therefore it is necessary to respect the rest time required for recovery pasture between grazings, and to achieve that is critical knowledge and practical application of the proper use and management of electrified wires or threads. The proper use of this technology allows a grazing system by which it is possible to calculate the allocation of forage needed and rest of the pasture, to be able to modify the size of the plots according to supply fodder for every moment and situation of the pasture during the year and the production cycle of pasture and cow.
To succeed in its results, this system of agricultural and livestock production must produce more, and as in other activities must innovate, reduce costs and make better use of available resources, mainly through better management of process technology. In short, try to maintain and if possible improve the profitability of the system over time.
Can there be a CBI TECHNOLOGY IN ARGENTINA CURRENT REALITY?
From eyed Deer INTA working with the CBI Group, a group of 16 producers using CBI technology for several years. These companies have regular meetings with professionals regarding updating of different technical areas, jointly develop new alternative technologies, are monitored on some indicators of the production cycle, and is able to maintain depth discussions on how to increase and improve efficiency System of production.
To analyze how these companies with an increasingly aggressive agriculturization not only regionally but nationally, it should be mentioned that all these producers have very clear concept that I raise production (agriculture and livestock) that perform must first assure an adequate return to the high value of these lands, possibly the highest. Secondly believe it is vital to maintain soil fertility. Thus, in these statements where agriculture is very high yielding extractive soil nutrients, but all practice conservation planteos zero or minimum tillage, there was broad agreement in the agricultural cycle should include a rotation with alfalfa based pastures to recover physical and chemical fertility. The overall result is that these companies seek to increase crop and livestock yields, but always trying to keep these production systems are sustainable over time and that these areas continue to be as productive for future generations of producers as they are today,
In order to maintain this rotation with livestock is livestock production must obtain an economic outcome comparable to agricultural, which is necessary to intensify the entire management of breeding on cultivated pastures of high productivity. To do these producers have achieved a significant increase in stocking levels of five cows per hectare of pasture (and some even more) during spring and summer, coinciding moments of high forage production with higher nutritional requirements of the production cycle breeding herd (lactating and service).
During the dry period, when nutrient requirements are lower, are intended for cows grazing corn and soybean stubble, as mentioned above. CBI Producers Group made this stubble grazing generally for no less than six months / year, depending on the year, because it is a dynamic system that has strong dependence on the climate factor. When it is very humid, pastures continue to grow during fall significantly, making it necessary to continue the use of pasture, in these cases can be decreased using stubble. Otherwise happens in cold and dry years where the pasture shrinks its production cycle and is necessary to increase the grazing period of stubble, as occurred during the last cycle.
It is always advisable to ensure a conserved forage reserve, the most common is the use of hay in the form of rolls. Although its use is generally limited in high producing pastures, can be used when rainstorms occur for many days, where some producers decided to leave a few days of stubble or pasture, rationing herds on pastures with hard rolls or the streets.
Supplements are also used as scrap or waste occasional silo plants (sorghum, sojilla, etc.) Are excellent resources that can also be used by the cows.
The stubble grazing CBI technology has a foundation other than the one held in previous decades, where its use was almost exclusive to corn stover and was directed mainly to the consumption of cornstalks left in the soil after harvest and the recommendation was that when cows stop “bostear” grain stubble should be removed. Today, the concept is also directed to the grazing of crop residues of corn and soybeans but becomes more important grazing natural plants that grow spontaneously during the cold cycle, as capiquí, Boulessia, Lamnium, nettle and other . Producers say it is important the selection of the herbicide to be used in agricultural crops, considering that its herbicidal action is not very prolonged over time because it would affect the production of said resource winter forage cut using herbicides then action.
The concept of land cover has also changed, because although it should be covered or protected from erosion agents (rain, wind, etc.) The current concept is that such coverage must be given by living plant material, or whether the existence of live vegetation during the stubble with natural winter forage resources will determine the best soil protection and provide organic matter to the roots, thus increasing uptake of rainwater in the soil occurred when compared with dead vegetation. Therefore, the producers managed herds CBI trying to expand in all batches of seeds capiqui stubble and other, with bosteo of animals, in general, a good use of these resources is possible with a stocking cow per hectare of stubble, may be greater depending on the year.
The nutritional value of corn stover and soybean in general is poorly understood or missing information on the composition of the nutrients they contain, and is not the same when it comes to green stubble (natural vegetation or plantings of winter species) or stubble with all dry or dead material surface. More is still unknown what the cow selected in both situations. To learn more about these diets are planned evaluation work through the study of bird droppings (dung) of animals (NIRS-NUTBAL method) for information on what is selected by the animals and the nutritional value or the same chemical composition.
The current discussion is that producers CBI body condition of cows is always excellent, on the scale of body condition (BC) of 1-5, the cows are almost never below 3.5. The minimum state required to initiate their reproductive cycle is CC = 2.5. Thus, the present body condition that these detours above is normally required, then the load of 5 cows / ha may be considered low for the supply of nutrients provided by the system, which could be further increased high burden well reasoned and meat production per hectare. All this without even considering other technologies such as early weaning, breeding herds by fixed-time artificial insemination, new field supplementation strategies, balanced soil nutrition, and so on. Therefore it is considered that it is still far ceiling or the productive potential of CBI technology.
Balanced soil nutrition is addressed to the sound management of nutrients to try to increase the production of forage crops and harvest. Therefore special attention is given to the results of the full analysis of each floor (all essential elements), and the proper balance between cations of the same. This balance determines the necessary balance of the soil elements required for the formation of granular structure, which allows storage of air (O2) and water necessary for crop cultivation and microbiological life, especially for periods of water stress. This treatment is nutrition support to which must be added those elements essential for generating nutritional balance of the crop. The consequence is the production of additional kilos of dry matter entering the organic matter cycle. This process transforms compacted structures in both laminar and amorphous granular structures, roots can forage crops and explore the different soil profiles without physical limitations.
The increase in fodder production – and with it the production of meat – are constant targets, therefore, experiments are performed in CBI fields where the most promising evaluate associations species and new forage varieties. But another thing is to make the best use of the available forage, therefore also discussed methods to achieve more intensified grazing cows with greater efficiency in harvesting the grass, making it more meat.
Another important issue in health CBI Rodeo is generally accepted that if body condition is usually very good, you can accept that there should be no major problems. Intensified management enables better continuous observation of rodeos, a fact that allows any act quickly to situations. But the very high instantaneous loads can also enhance the rapid spread of diseases, increased contact between animals. Some producers CBI Group have severe problems of neonatal diarrhea in calves. In connection with this investigation are being planned in cows and calves to try to explain the cause and possible solutions.
The application of the technology must be considered conceptually CBI in the field of the production system, therefore, breeding forms part of a mixed system in which the activities are complementary in shape mutual benefit, resulting in a better end result physical economic and if conducted in isolation.
A central aspect is that out of the productive parameters and economic elements of sustainability brings to the company, more properly aimed at conserving soil resources which is what ultimately supports these high yields, and better protect the environment with natural productions .