PRODUCTION INCREASE NORTHERN ARGENTINA
Author: Dr.Carlos O Peruchena
M.Sc, Consultor, Nutrición y Forrajes, Región NEA, Argentina
Current livestock productivity. The historical problems
The problems of our pastoral livestock remain the historic low adoption of technologies is reflected in: x has low stocking rates, low calf production in breeding, Marking rates of 45-50%, low efficiency in daily gain weight in the rearing and fattening.
The low stocking rate x ha, low reproductive efficiency and daily weight gain of cattle, severely affects the productive and economic livestock systems on grasslands.
– Constraints to production, forage problems
Nutritional deficiencies in cattle, primarily during the autumn-winter period, constitute the main limiting factor for intensifying regional meat production.
The low nutritive value of tropical grasses is one of the main limiting factors for the intensification of production.
Nutritive value of pasture in subtropical
The crude protein content in pastures, ranges in 5-16% of dry matter depending on the time of year, the digestibility of the organic matter is less than 60% and nonstructural carbohydrate content is less than 100 g / kg of dry matter.
Due to the characteristics of the growth cycle of the pastures, and as a result of this process is a high degree of seasonal variation in the concentration of nutrients in tropical grasses.
In spring these grasses are better balanced, with low concentration of dry matter and fiber and maximum levels of protein and digestibility, in these conditions the voluntary intake is high. In summer, it increases dry matter content, is stable and protein content slightly increases decreasing fiber digestibility. Voluntary intake is medium / high.
In the autumn-winter period there is a large increase in the content of dry matter and indigestible fiber and drops steeply protein content and digestibility of the forage. Under these conditions the voluntary consumption drops to minimum levels.
An additional problem is the seasonality in the growth of these pastures, with high levels of accumulation of forage in the period spring-summer-fall (> 20 kg DM / ha / day) and little or no winter growth (<5 kg DM / ha / day).
Seasonality in pasture growth.
The high growth rate of summer and fall is contrasted with the low stocking having extensive systems (0.2 – 0.7 EV / ha), have resulted in low utilization of forage produced and rapid maturity, increasing rapidly fiber content and decreasing the lignin and the protein concentration and organic matter digestibility.
Grassland mature, quality losses, reduced consumption and difficulty of access.
The structure and the grass is perceived by the animal, also affects their response to forage.
In mature pasture conditions, selectivity exercised by grazing cattle possible to obtain an improvement in the quality of intake. The nutritional effect of dietary selection can be measured as the difference in levels between the protein and digestible forage offered and consumed (Hamilton, et al, 1973). The region has shown the importance of selectivity in grazing on tropical grasses.
Nutritive value of forage offered and selected on Pangola (Digitaria decumbens) (Peruchena, CO 1993)
The selective behavior of grazing cattle guides the selection of diet to the leaf component, especially the green leaf component, which accounts for the higher nutritional value of the forage (nitrogen and soluble carbohydrates) (Peruchena and others, 1986).
Nutritional gaps and productive.
Our livestock is developed on natural pastures of low nutritional value, very heterogeneous in their productivity, with varying degrees of impairment by weed growth, progress of seedlings and mount etc, and with little or no winter production.
The poor supply of nutrients from the forage base pastoral contrasts with the high demand for nutrients in young cattle fattening and growth stages.
Nutritional requirements of growing and fattening cattle (Fernandez et al, 1993)
Nutritional deficit is significant in winter, affects mainly in the months of July / August / September.
The high fiber content (NDF) and low in protein and digestibility of tropical grasses in the winter, limiting voluntary intake of grazing cattle, increase the nutritional gap and undertake animal response level.
In traditional production models, with a base exclusively pastoral nutritional imbalances in the autumn-winter period limited annual production response and affect the economy and the sustainability of these production systems.
There are categories of livestock where the problem manifests itself more seriously, where the nutritional gap is greatest and where the impact on productivity will be more severe.
Categorization of cattle after nutritional requirements (adap. of Noller, 1997)
Identical nutritional deficits observed in winter producing sows: breeding cow loses weight after delivery, in the winter months, which has its largest nutritional requirements because the requirements of lactation adds to their maintenance and production requirements.
The effect is more severe in young cows, 2nd and 3rd service still to complete their growth requerimentos adult.
The body condition of the cow breeding in the service is an efficient indicator of management and feeding in the pre and post delivery. The state body in the service is a good indicator of pregnancy in cattle breeding feasible, indicator grades vary the conditions of the production environment.
Condcion body and pregnancy malezal camps. Currents.
It is time to understand the problems winter forage, as a constant that occurs every year. If we do this we will ensure in the field, before winter, forages, infraestrcutura equipment and finances necessary to not lose weight (July, August / September).
New scenario livestock intensification favor.
The scenario is changing livestock prices have improved the estate, reaching the top of the last 20 years, the relationship has improved grain meat, corn relations today: 15:1 meat is the most favorable in years and also improved climate in the region, after five years of severe drought restrictions.
Similarly we can see the relationship seed cotton: meat, as a regional product highly adaptable to different production situations.
The potential livestock in northern Argentina is intact, the stock has increased, new investments have come from outside the region, it was time to take advantage of the new scenario incorporating available technologies to improve the production and utilization of forages in intensifying systems.
The forage and equipment plan for intensification.
To intensify beef production region, it is necessary to improve the forage base of beef production systems in northern Argentina.
The ways to achieve this are:
– Improve productivity of natural grassland forage seeding Increase cultivated pastures high production
– Increase the planting of feed grains: sorghum and maize
– Designing food and nutrition strategies for the best use of these feed resources
Coming years to redefine the “plan and the plan forage production” of companies.
Time to assess the soil map of the field, and increase in the top soil, planting perennial cultivated pastures and production of silage corn or sorghum, which together with other feed resources will enhance the productive response of grasslands and pastures.
Low also be improved by eliminating unproductive grasslands (straw grass, straw boba, pirizales etc) and incorporating high pasture production in these environments.
The rolo aerator blades has become a tool for renewal and improvement to increase productivity of rangelands and pastures.
It is necessary to improve the utilization of forages produced, if forage is essential pastoral care quality, the forage is not passed, we must operate in pastures or small plots, should have enough water, and the best leaf / stem ratio when the enters the grazing animals, must take care of the remaining residual forage grazing post to not harm the recovery speed of the lot.
If the type is conserved forage corn silage or sorghum should aim to get as much production and higher nutritional value (high grain%), which determines the quality of the forage resources, and have the equipment needed to make efficient storage, processing and supply of fodder.
In systems that enhance the production equipment is essential, the whole process should be automated, it is necessary to improve the storage capacity in bag silos, silos or mesh or metal silos, mills and processing in the homogenization horizontal or vertical mixer, and forage wagons distribution appropriate to the scale of production.
It is very important to plan the design of power circuits, which must be the closest possible to the fodder processing center, ensuring ease of access roads and transit, even in rainy days and ensuring comfort for the hacienda in days cold, heat, rain etc.
Intensive systems in northern Argentina.
Changes in livestock scenario favor the development of intensive livestock systems, where the factor supplementation is an important component as it allows to balance the quality of the intake of cattle throughout the production cycle, using silage, grains and agro products.
These intensive systems integrate the use of different feed resources: natural grassland and cultivated pasture forage as silage stocks, grains and by-products, in short cycle times.
Pastoral farming systems: have a duration (300-400 days), with high efficiency individual (gdp: 600-800 g / nov / day) and high production per ha (300-500 kg / ha / year) .
Mixed systems corral / pastoral have shorter cycles of 100/150 days as sales targets, enabling to perform 2 cycles in the year, with average daily gain of 1-1.2 kg / an / day.
Intensive farming systems of the northern region, are greatly influenced by diet plan: that will improve animal growth rate in its first phase between 6 and 18 months. It is in this period where the animal can develop 50% of their adult weight, is the time of biological efficiency, with the greatest potential for conversion alimentica, Hay meat.
Growth potential under grazing animals
The intensification of production is an ongoing process throughout the north of our country, in Corrientes, on Pangola intensive systems have made it possible to achieve and Setaria young animals for slaughter with 380/420 kg at 20 months of age and beef yields above 58%
Breeding also undergoing a process of intensification of production, the use of reserves to cover the deficit forage winter forage has high impact on the productivity of breeding sows.
In the area of Corrientes Desmochado used whole plant corn silage (8 kg fresh x cow x day), to feed cows with calf at foot 1st in the months of July to October.
Cows were selecting their postpartum body condition, as they lost state, the closer to the supply circuit with corn silage.
Cows received its 2nd service rationed with corn silage, obtaining in this category a pregnancy of 82%, with excellent development of the calf also had access to the feeders with corn silage.
The intensification of the rearing of heifers is a key process towards greater efficiency in breeding herds.
In the period from weaning at 6-8 months up to 18-20 months entore, the average daily weight gain should not be less than 600 gr / an / day, while maintaining or even exceeding those levels during the service period of the heifer.
Ibarreta area, Formosa, profit levels are met 800gr/an/dia weight on achieving gatton panic entorar the heifer at 18 months, the service is made on Gatton panic, pregnancy levels of 90%.
In Goya Corrientes, intensive systems are developed on Setaria and Brachiaria Brizantha using pastures in their production peak spring / summer / fall, supplemented with 0.6 / 08% of the live weight of corn and protein concentrates.
The results show steers completion of a short course of nine months, with good individual efficiency in weight gain and excess of 400kg/ha productions.
Another option to improve the speed of growth and fattening is correct the quality of mature pastures in autumn / winter. In Virasoro correct nutritional imbalance mature protein Brachiaria pastures Brizantha, allowing double the daily gain of the control groups on pasture without correction protein.
To increase the supply of fat, in these times of shortage of finance is convenient to perform the entire fattening and culled cow / heifers discard fields.
Today there are very favorable conditions for the use of feed grains and by-products for fattening these categories.
Fattening systems of females also must go to the intensification of production, organizing the system, as we do with males.
Modules should be designed fattening and power circuits for the fattening of cattle in the fields. If the broiler is pastoral, should be on a good forage base, availability of MS with no less than 2 tons / ha, aiming to gain weight no less than 600 gr / an / day in pastoral systems and 800-1200 gr / an / day in systems pen on a forage of hay and corn silage or sorghum.
In the province of Misiones have developed silvopastoral grazing systems and very high productivity, using pens for breeding in the winter and then 1st tropical pastures elephant grass and Bermuda Coast in their peak production.
Weight gain and stocking level supported by elefantey bermudagrass pastures allowed achieving, young steers finished for slaughter with high acceptance in the consumer market Missionary. The productivity per hectare is the level of the best courses in the temperate zone of the country.
In the province of Formosa, has increased in recent years, the development of intensive production systems, in west central provincial certainly Gatton Panic was one of those most responsible for the new escalation processes ..
In producing field is reached Las Lomitas stocking levels on gatton of 2 and 2, 5 EV / ha with weight gains of 180/200 kg / an / year. These developments are in full production process, it is estimated that the production ceiling intensive for these systems has not been achieved yet.
In Chaco producing fields, steers light occur in mixed systems, using the grazing schedule gatton panic, about 6 hours per day, and the rest of the time the bulls remain in pens enclose with supplementary grain-based and regional products: maize / sorghum / sunflower expeller, cottonseed.
What is observed in these systems is their organization and equipment for storage, processing and distribution of daily forrajes.En’s larger scale establishments that install their own factory balanced on the field.
Northern Argentina has the conditions to play a 1st level in the new national livestock scenario. Today we have conditions for breeding, fattening recriar and efficiently our manufacturing productivity.
Trading firms have already noticed, the fridges exporters should make a good read of this situation, should bring their industrialization plants north of the country, partnering with producers to ensure quality and continuity of supply.
We have a challenge in northern Argentina that is the efficient development of our livestock, giving adopatando available technologies and increasing added value.
If you started this development industry meat production will be with us moving to our region and increasing our ability to give our people more work and greater value to our production.
Favorable developments are observed in the network of roads, transport and energy connection networks, which open up new possibilities for the production, commercialization and industrialization of our products.
We start from different realities but all can act.
To manage the intensification of production is necessary to have clear ideas, investment plan, start developing and harnessing the potential forage supply, to increase productivity and economic response of our systems.
To develop the potential of northern Argentina needed clear rules (agreements arising from the public: private), that give predictability to investment and industrial production.
In livestock are talking in all cases of a medium-term horizon, not less than five years.