Leandro O. Abdelhadi, M.V., M.Sc.
This summary is intended merely stating cualeshan been the progress of recent years on quality of silage, for which it serves as a basis alcultivo following siendoquien corn dominates the world stage and local levels, as in the last campanarepresento in the country 69% of lascasi 800 000’ve silage.
Type hybrids. Despite grandesavances hybrid technology Sehan happened in the last 12 years since we entered 1996 in Bio-technology quellamamos was generally still see the best grain hybrids: plant are those best production that give us answers. This is because the fraction Aque stem, leaves (known worldwide as stover) in general does not have enough time in the rumen for serdigerida (This usually takes Aque when using laboratory information set to 72h to remain in the rumen, is on estimating the energy intake unsilo performed and the result is lower production than expected conrespecto. While some companies in the country are working to improve the stover (eg, incorporating features such as BMR, Leafy, or hardened materials incorporating tropical genetics to increase their Stay Green), the information world shows that while there would be some advantage to for more digestible fibers, increased production per hectare from the traditional (high starch), coupled with limited exposure time ruminal digestion wing with the silage, limanesas differences. However, with the help of research everything we do to improve the use of stover, on the basis of materials of high relative grain: ground, we will improve in meat or milk production year after year. Crop maturity and% dry matter (DM). This is where it generates greater conflict and stress for both the contractor and to elproductor. I think this time is to put a lot of gray matter on both sides and for this we must know two basic questions: â€¢ 2/3de ½ milk line is the range in which we silage most of the materials of high relative grain: ground available to us, because until that point the loss of plant quality by increasing maturity is offset by the starch that accumulates in the grain (highly digestible nutrients). â€¢ when there is no limitations for filling grains occurs, performance ENMS / ha in maize increases approx. 30% milky pasarde ½ milk line and 9% more to spend ½ milk line on ripened grain. This tells us that anticipate when chopping silage at milky grain for example, only serves to give up performance in MS / ha (and up the cost of each kg of silage produced), as previously commented as to 2/3de líneade milk the quality of the whole plant is unchanged when compared with the quality geared lechoso.En when the% DM, the optimal range to work with these materials would entre32 and 38% of MS (which is broadly consistent, although can not do it, with grain madurezdel states mentioned above). Materials with higher moisture silage (Furthermore muysecos silage materials (> 40% DM), generates more difficult to compact materials with restricted fermentation and aerobic stability of low silos. MS also more generally coincides with a more lignified fiber grains and starches that are digested more slowly and need a higher degree of processing to be exploited.
Cutting height. Both the global and the local information agree that he should define cutting height is the type of diet, or rather the silage elrol served in a particular diet. In our conditions we know that the traditional cutting height to not affect the working efficiency of the machinery in typical suelosganaderos uneven, around 20 cm from elsuelo. Local information (mean of 5 works) shows that from 20 to 40 cm from elsuelo would impair performance in MS / ha (-8%), but because in the field is less digestible fraction of the culture (lower deltallo), digestibility of what we get esmayor (+3.3%) and thus the ability to producircarne or milk with the material would not be affected too ensilamos (-6% DM digestibility). However, depending on the role will the silage in the diet or feed category, may not make sense to sacrifice the potential yield of digestible dry matter (and transform it embodies or milk), or perhaps if appropriate way to do it and make a contribution of nutrients to the soil ( MO, K) which creates a savings in the culture fertilizer successor. Finally, although the producer is more important to be digestible dry matter silage green water, the contractor raise the cutting height involves you leave kg in the field that could chop them and charge for it. What matters is to raise the cutting height has 2 benefits to the contractor (increases work efficiency and reduces wear of the cutting system of the machine, since that bottom of the plant is more land that is attached) , and one for the producer who needs to do (maximize individual production porkgMS Silage consumed). Recall also that in a crisis like climate this year (drought), the corn plant fails good content of grains and nitrate concentrations above the bottom, so Cualla cutting height is a tool to take intoaccount.
Particle size. Neither extreme is good, because a finely chopped reduces the effectiveness of the chopped fiber and a very large capacity reduces compaction of the material and generates rejections in the trough. The general recommendation is in the range of 7 to 10 mm for silos 15 mm unprocessed and processed parasilos as material processing “grain crackers” reduces the particle size by 10 to 15%. If we used the particle separator of the University of Pennsylvania (SPUP), 8% of the screened material should be in the top sieve. Achieving a 15 to 20% of the material is more than 3 cm in length, have sufficient fiber to move the rumen. It is obvious that what we do is issue an order of TLC (theoretical length of cut) to the machine and then depending on how they are cutting system and the maturity of the crop, we have the result, which is why the best way to describe the work of chopping is through the use of SPUP when you start the process and make necessary adjustments for a particular purpose and not wait until the end to see the result because it is too late. Recall that we can not sacrifice the quality of silage corn in search of effective fiber, especially when we often low-quality alternatives available (eg crop tail roll), which in low concentration in the diet allow us to move the rumen. The key is that the animal consumes it and do not select it in the trough, and on or homogeneous mixing is the key.
Grain processing. The grain processing is accepted as a technique for improving the quality of silage from a greater exposure of the starch in the rumen digestion. While globally there are publications that talk about doing so at the time of filling the silo or prior to use, in most cases including them into our reality, the processing is done during the harvest with a device called “corn cracker”, which is specific for corn. The rule for proper processing, it would be that 90% of the grain is damaged and the largest piece of cob should be ¼ of the slice. If this does not happen the result is twofold: 1) presence of slices of cob in the trough and 2) presence of undigested grain in feces. As we begin this short talk about the importance of corn silage with a high ratio grain: ground, so if that extra grain is not available from the processing, the animal will be unable to extract this energy differential and the erroneous conclusion is that material gives the same meat or milk than the other. Remember some important points: â€¢ This device has 2 working toothed rollers at a speed differential and one that does is reduce the light, so use more light wear and generates appropriate chelates between rollers (the springs are due) . That is not because this place means you are doing the job we need. â€¢ For small grains, especially ensorgo, using as many dedientes roller (120) that can approach a distance of 3 mm and working at a speed differential of 30%, is the only way to achieve an adequate job. In local experiments showed that 85% of processed sorghum grain yield response can achieve similar to those obtained with corn silage, where the larger grain size allows a greater use if it should be over. â€¢ Using these devices involves spend the whole mass of material that light between rollers FOR AT which there is no way to avoid the drop in work efficiency and the increased fuel consumption, but if we want to ensure an adequate result is preferable to consider the 15% extract price and stop processing the material because the result will not be adequate. â€¢ As the material is drier, the greater the need to process, since a processed grain is wetted in less time than a whole grain and thus accelerates the onset of rumen digestion. Also the bigger the animal the greater the passage of food from the rumen and therefore have less exposure time for proper digestion, which is the most important processing.
Fermentation and its control. It is well known that there are two intrinsic characteristics in forrajesque determine their suitability for silage, they are: the buffer capacity (BC = resistance of a species to acidification), and the content of soluble carbohydrates (CHS). Depending on the relationship between these two variables arises what should be the minimum level of dry matter forage species that need to achieve an anaerobically stable silage.Species such as maize and sorghum are characterized by a high ratio CHS / CB, which transforms them into easy ensilables for lower than the level of MS at the time of the dive. This has made for years, producers and technicians have not assessed the need to control the process of hand the use of additives in species how are you, you naturally end up stabilizing, while in other species with opposite characteristics (low CHS / CB ) and legumes has been associated with the use of additives to achieve a silajeestable and published information has endorsed this concept. In contrast, the literature regarding the use of inoculants in maize and sorghum, have yielded inconsistent results especially when the experimental methodology used was based on the use in micro (highly controlled environment). Since 2004, together with several companies and the CAFC began a new era of local research in the use of bacterial inoculants, but using the methodology of Silobolsa as experimental device, in an attempt to achieve better representation of the Actually the producer. From there we have generated and published consistent results that justify the control of fermentation using inoculants, given its positive effects on achieving higher quality silage in both crops as corn and easily ensilables sorghum in those more complicated as legumes or in combinations of both. Undoubtedly, a fermentation would not occur in the presence of oxygen and it is here that the silage material compaction is the most objective tool we have to speed anaerobiosis. The compaction achieved in a given feed varies with the moisture level of the material at the time of chopped grain ratio: ground, chopped size and grain processing. This accepted that an adequate level of compaction bunker silo should be in elrango of 230 to 260 kgMS/m3, whereas for the case of silos acceptable compactions bag should fall in the range of 150-200kgMS/m3. Our reality shows a large rangodemasiado (100 – 400 kg MS/m3) if bienlos averages are within the accepted, perolo of concern are the lower end especially because we know that the dry matter losses after 180 days of ensiling material can move from 10 to 20% of the total stored (or double), as reported in reference publications.
Sealed silos. A good seal is caracterizapor perfect contact with the surface of the plastic silo, so what we use to ensure that contact ensuperficie dependeráde each particular situation, but regardless of where in the world in which the use of covers nosencontremos is the most difundido.No seal the silo immediately after suconfección permanentede involves allowing oxygen flow, which maintains an active breathing process, thus slowing the decline Delph, generating increased consumption of nutrientesde normal, and generating jobs lost quesegún published hastael can reach 50% of the ensiled material (in particular in less compaction lossectores as are lascapas surface). In this aspect, the great advantage of the sealing bolsaradica insofar queavanzamos in its filling, and this is sumamenteimportante allow the escape of gases durantelas first 72 hours of completion of the silo (and avoid possible cracks) and then properly seal the end point.
Extraction and supply. This is where ends this long process and unfortunately is one of the most neglected, regardless of technology used. One of the main problems is that the producer thinks that their operators understand the issue and on the other hand the contractor completed its work, charged with luck and already planning the next campaign. The reality is that many have begun ainquietarse by this stage, especially contractors who want the producer to obtain the highest return per peso invested in silage Paraque continue to gather momentum in this technology. When we open a silo the main enemy of quality regain contact with the material: oxygen. Because of this nutrient consumption by aerobic microorganisms (yeast first and then fungi) start again and all that cost tantonos keep it begins to lose. This is the reason why it is accepted that exposure of the exposed face exceeding 24 hours lost means not less than 3% of dry matter to where oxygen penetrated. The solution is simply a management that we asegureque the silo reaching the trough is the same that ended the ensiling process and not a matter lexpuesto to aerobic deterioration.
Finally, each of the concepts in this dump is supported by information published in refereed journals (much of which has the value being generated locally) and I’ll be happy to evacuate all lasdudas that the reader will be generated in this exciting Search for more quality, which is the basis to produce more meat and more milk to feed an increasing world demand and local levels.