In southern Santa Fe does more than ten years lived in harmony and livestock farming in a very healthy balance in mixed farming systems known. These activities were developed well within the best courses in the pampas, basing its good quality grain production in the soil and in rotation with cattle. Being historically based food grazing on alfalfa pasture grasses, it was possible to achieve in those years a sustainable production with this system to recover much of the physical and chemical fertility.
The pampas was recognized worldwide as a fertile meadow, not only for the quality of soil and its mild temperate climate, but also by the private management of agricultural and livestock production that got good yields in grains and meat, but with own label which was characterized by low cost, good performance, good quality, very stable and naturally balanced, without environmental pollution problems and above all things, kept their high fertility soils.
The wet cycle that characterized the last decades of the previous century and increases in grain prices, coupled with a suffocating offer input technologies aimed at increasing grain production, achieved results in excessive agriculturization who rejected the profits then pasture cycle. To this must be added years of low livestock prices and the lack of a national plan to determine the livestock of a clear policy objectives in the marketing of livestock and meat.
Against this background the sustainability of the production systems of the Pampas is not being taken seriously, therefore tillage systems still minimized level, problems of soil compaction and nutrient replenishment are determined not to think increase or maintain production at national level over time.
Obviously was achieved higher grain and oilseed production in various agricultural areas and in marginal areas, but this is a high cost that is subsidized by the ground (Casas, R. INTA Castelar), because they are exporting large quantities of soil nutrients are not parts Not even an approximate to removed.
Therefore, before the supply of available technologies that maintain mixed farming systems with livestock return comparable to agricultural crops, but not thinking about competing in a complementarity between activities, mutual benefit as it is possible to achieve a virtuous circle where higher fertility, higher production and thus allows greater system sustainability.
This makes it possible to produce more balanced in nutrients with the use of latest technologies for each activity, thus obtaining maximum profitability in the company and, thinking more about the environment by using less chemicals, recovering fertility (minerals, nitrogenous organic matter, structure, etc.). inexpensively. Ranching Intensive Cattle Breeding allows high production and profitability of agriculture coexisting with high yields and is much cleaner environment.
The CBI involves the intensification of animal production throughout its operation, involving animal health, nutrition and genetics. Grazing management, forage allocation breaks and periods of pasture, become paramount, thus ensuring the forage necessary to maintain high load (5 or more cows / ha of pasture) during lactation and service ( spring-summer), and during the dry period (autumn ~ winter) cows graze the stubble. As we continue to grow during autumn pastures, are used with the rearing of replacement heifers, higher requirements.
To withstand high loads during the life of the pasture, this system requires good quality soil and proper implementation that enable high productivity and forage (15-20 t DM / ha). These alfalfa consociated with temperate grasses provide forage nutritionally balanced and risks are less filling. It reduces the risks of low forage production, by excessive moisture cycles gift-of grasses increase their production, or on the contrary to droughts that often occur, alfalfa plants respond better. On the other hand, in the rotation of the field, this association of forage species and adds organic matter to the soil chemical fertility for the next crop.
The complementation achieved with this large livestock, is that when under nutritional requirements of cows (dry cow) are available stubble or crop residue with vegetation “spontaneous” (capiqui, boulesia, lamniun and others) growing in the cold period is an excellent resource for forage breeding herd that is free, with the added advantage of cost-saving “chemical fallow.”
Farmers traditionally called Fields (ravines, low or some limitation to grain production) should possibly continue breeding livestock, to be the most viable production alternative for production circumstances. However, in the areas of greatest agricultural potential within the crop rotation in agriculture-pure-now are rethinking the benefits of including grazing cycles, not only to improve soil conditions but also to improve pest control .
Another important issue in health CBI Rodeo is generally accepted that if body condition is very good, there should be no major problems, but at these high loads snapshots can also enhance the rapid spread of diseases, increased contact between animals. As well, you may compromise animal welfare therefore requires further adjustment of health programs. On the other hand it allows better observation of rodeos, and can act more quickly.
The other pillar of the production is the genetic aspect, where the British breeds (Angus, Hereford and Shorthorn) are perfectly suited to these systems because they ensure high herd fertility, sexual precocity for more then 15 months early.
In addition to the high quality of meat breeds to achieve these demanding domestic and foreign markets, very stable in tenderness and flavor, a fact that allows maximize livestock market prices.
This system of livestock farming, to succeed in their results must produce more, and as in other activities must innovate, reduce costs and make better use of available resources through better management of technology and proven processes known . Definitely try to maintain and if possible improve the profitability of the system over time, trying to conserve soil resources.
The IWC proposal is to develop cattle breeding in agricultural soils of the Corn Belt-soybean core area. It aims to express the productive potential of breeding herds in agricultural fields, always looking for better complementarity between agricultural and pastoral activities. So, in the best productive environments, seeking to maximize the stocking, increase production of calves per cow and per hectare at low cost, therefore, more economically sustainable production and sustainable mixed in time.
To achieve these objectives should be intensified herd management in the three basic pillars of production: animal health, nutrition and genetics. Thus, grazing management, forage allocation and rest periods of pasture, become paramount, assuring forage management needed to keep many heads per hectare (5 or more cows / ha of pasture) during the useful life of the pasture. This high burden is held primarily during lactation and service (spring-summer), and should be enough pasture to feed properly the rodeo at this time of the production cycle and with this level of stocking, with the highest nutritional demands of the same .
At the system level, to intensify the use of high-yielding perennial pastures for the cattle cycle (with animal droppings), roots of grasses and biological nitrogen fixation by legumes increases in soil organic matter and nitrogen other essential nutrients for crops after the pastoral cycle, while promoting soil microbiology. Crop residues or stubble carbohydrate containing no nitrogen, which to be grazed by cows become nitrogenous organic matter (manure and urine) that incorporated into the soil, recovering much of the fertile agricultural products consumed.
Also stands out as another important advantage that stubble during replaced the use of herbicides for weed control and crop winter guachos (chemical fallow) by grazing, while there is no cost meat.
Thus, with breeding cows can get very good production and economic results in the best fields of the pampas.
This system of livestock farming, to succeed in their results must produce more, and as in other activities must innovate, reduce costs and make better use of available resources, mainly through better management of process technologies. Definitely try to improve the performance of the system and keep it in time.
PRODUCER GROUP CBI
From INTA eyed Deer CBI Group was formed, a group of 16 producers using CBI technology for several years in their production systems. With these companies internal meetings are held periodically for analysis, study and planning new ways to further improve production. With professional upgrade activities relating to different technical areas, as well as joint work with these producers and their professional advisers are experienced new technological alternatives to try to resolve problems identified. Also monitored on some indicators of the production cycle and especially deep discussions are held on how to increase and improve production efficiency of the system.
FIELD OPERATIONS CBI
To analyze how these companies face an increasingly aggressive agriculturization not only regionally but nationally, it should be mentioned that all these producers have very clear concept that I raise production (agriculture and livestock) that perform, you must first assure a return linked to the high value of these lands, possibly the highest. Secondly believe it is vital to maintain soil fertility. With a high-yield agriculture and soil conservation management (no-till or minimum tillage), recognize that it is very extractive, so there is a great overlap in these producers in the agricultural cycle should include a rotation with alfalfa based pastures to recover physical and chemical fertility in the soil. The overall result is that these companies seek to increase both agricultural yields as farmers, but always trying to keep these production systems remain as productive and sustainable for future generations of producers as they are today.
INTENSIVE CATTLE BREEDING (CBI)
In order to maintain this rotation with livestock, you need to obtain a livestock production is comparable to-do agricultural economic thus intensifies the entire management of breeding on cultivated pastures of high productivity, for it has been increasing as significant stocking levels of five cows per hectare of pasture and some more, during spring and summer, when the production cycle that has been parked breastfeeding and service.
During the dry period with lower nutrient requirements, are intended for cows grazing corn and soybean stubble, as mentioned above. CBI Producers Group made this stubble grazing generally for no less than six months / year, depending on the year, because it is a dynamic system that has strong dependence on the climatic year. When it is very humid, pastures continue to grow during fall significantly, making it necessary to continue the use of pasture, in these cases can be decreased using stubble. Otherwise happens in cold and dry years where the pasture shrinks its production cycle and no moisture for planting crops, and is necessary to increase the grazing period of stubble, as happened during the last cycle (2003/04).
It is always advisable to ensure a conserved forage reserve, the most common is the use of hay in the form of rolls. For though in general is very limited use in high production pastures, you never know when they can be used. The most common use is in the presence of rainstorms for days, where some producers decided to leave a few days of stubble or pasture, rationing herds on pastures with hard rolls or in the streets. Supplements are also used as occasional scrap or waste silo plants (sorghum, sojilla, etc.) Are excellent resources that can also be used by the cows.
The stubble grazing CBI technology has a foundation other than the one held in previous decades, where its use was almost exclusive to corn stover and was directed mainly to the consumption of cornstalks left in the soil after harvest, the recommendation was that when cows stop “bostear” grain stubble should be removed. Today the concept is also directed to grazing crop residues of corn and soy, but becomes more important grazing natural plants that grow spontaneously during the cold cycle, as capiquí, boulessia, lamnium, nettle and other . The selection of herbicides used in agricultural crops should be aware that their herbicidal action is not very long time because it would affect the production of natural remedies winter forage, then using short-acting herbicides.
The concept of land cover has also changed, because although it should be covered or protected from erosion agents (rain, wind, etc.) The current concept is that such coverage must be given by material-Getal see live, ie that the existence of live vegetation during the stubble with natural forage resources will determine the best winter protection of soil and organic matter provide the roots, increasing uptake of rainwater in the soil occurred when compared with a dead vegetation. The producers managed herds CBI trying to expand in all batches of seeds capiqui stubble and other, with bosteo animals. Overall, a good use of these resources is possible with a stocking rate of one cow per hectare of stubble, may be greater depending on the year.
The body condition of cows always excellent in CBI system in the DC level 1-9 in the worst situation are hardly below 4.5 and the minimum state required to initiate their reproductive cycle is CC = 2.5, so the state that have these rodeos is usually above the re-quired, then the load of 5 cows / ha could be considered low for the supply of nutrients provided by the system. Therefore, it could be increased further described the high burden and so meat production per hectare. All this without even considering other technologies such as early weaning, genetic improvement of herds by tico timed artificial insemination throughout the rodeo, new field supplementation strategies, balanced soil nutrition, among others. As is further seen that even the ceiling or the productive potential of the technology CBI.
The application of technology must be considered conceptually CBI in the field of production system, thus raising is part of a mixed system in which the activities are complementary both benefit-dose, resulting in a better end result physical and economic as those made in the form iso-lated. A central aspect is that out of production and economic parameters provides elements of sustainabil-ity to the company, more properly aimed at conserving soil resources that ultimately is supporting these high yields, and better protect the environment with production more natural.
CBI FARMERS FIELDS
The Intensive Cattle Breeding concept can be applied to other areas of the country, having the chance to adjust it according to the characteristics and circumstances of each area of production. But the concept is valid always know the ground potential, which is equivalent to forage production.
While it is not possible to count the number of surface crop residues from other areas, however, for all the above, it highlights the need is increasingly important to know or at least have estimates of forage production possible for each field or area. As also the amount that is being used or wasted with grazing. This project aims to better stocking in every situation, thereby increasing the efficiency of production per hectare.
In this way corrections can be made on the use of grass produced by increasing or decreasing the cows per hectare. In the case that the cows make optimal harvest forage produced, have to see other possibilities to increase the amount of fodder, forage incorporating other, or the possibility of a more balanced soil nutrition.
While many farmers fields (Salado basin) are difficult to manage, there are also situations of gift-excessive burden on natural pastures due to agriculturization occurred in recent years, have resulted in overgrazing of forage resources existing, gaining more space scarce plant species unpalatable forage value for the estate. This leads to decrease of the load because it is not possible to maintain the same number of cows in the same surface, finally achieving lower production of meat per hectare.
Therefore, if the breeding herd located in areas unsuitable for agriculture is the largest national, any impact arising from this rodeo, a decisive impact on the country’s production. As there is technology available on optimizing forage production in areas of the basin, as these are areas of hill, half good or overa hill, as well as in low fresh or saline. For each case there is a distinct possibility, just a matter of analyzing each case on the best forage mixture and their relative costs (information Pastures Group, INTA Balcarce).
Just as there is plenty of technology available on ways to improve the reproductive, genetic, and of course the toilets. So although a lot of information and recommendations for better management of rodeos and was set long ago, everything was hampered by the poor relationship between the prices of agricultural crops versus livestock.
Today the situation has changed, then there are no more excuses for not introducing technology and modernize Argentine breeding herd, improving and increasing production to reach a world that wants to consume more meat and better quality and food safety. This would be consistent with the good reputation they have learned during the past centuries Argentina meat.