Intensive Cattle Breeding or CBI finds its highest expression in fields of agricultural suitability of the core area of the pampas (PH) Argentina, this is because of privilege with characteristics such as fertile land where they grow high quality pasture production, in addition to bulky residues from agricultural high yields, accompanied by the spontaneous development of normal and winter forage resources (RNFI). This large production environment favored by a mild climate with rainfall and temperature optimum not only enables better develop agriculture, but also to cover the demands of high cattle production with British breeds, are characterized by their excellent adaptation to the area, resulting in pastoral way the best quality meat for human consumption.
Livestock in this system bases its production on vigorous perennial pasture legume-grass temperate, receiving the same management as the best crop cultivation at sowing. With proper grazing during spring and summer provide nourishment for high loads (5 cows / ha) with high levels of procreate, breastfeeding and service, which is the maximum period of nutritional requirements rodeo production cycle. While during autumn-winter months the cows are dry, with less need, have soybean stubble and corn added to the natural growth of RNFI, which are a free resource of good food value for this category, which graze 1 with loads cow / ha. Previous work showed good fitness forage capiqui Stellaria media or with wintering steers (Kitroser, CS), in recent measurements was evaluated forage production in corn and soybean stubble in direct seeding and bowlesia capiqui under direct grazing cows breeding during the autumn-inviernal (Correa Luna, M. et al.).
In disadvantaged areas by their environment (soil and climate), the CBI will depend on enhanced management of natural forage species implanted that best meet those conditions, and if the residues are not sufficient in quantity or quality, have a smaller footprint in agriculture, or in low crop yields or crop underdevelopment of RNFI, should consider the use of corn or sorghum silos, just as grain or hay, as their possibilities of obtaining and manage power at the lowest possible cost.
To develop a system CBI, should be taken into account some guidelines that are general but can be helpful for implementation. The following list allows analysis of the circumstances and the benefits that can be achieved with its application, plus see the feasibility of being able to start in CBI.
Implementation of CBI: all steps are carried out gradually, both on the surface of pastures to grow as increasing load and its management in general, depend not only on the available resources but the ability of management for system change. The results are fast, are progressive, because it takes time livestock to produce change. Thus, as it grows, is learned.
Production environment: it is of fundamental importance to consider where you plan to develop the CBI, because according to the field type and climatic aspects (rainfall and temperature) prevailing pastures are used. Determining the possible production well and the type of forage grass or other resources to be used, which indicate the load that can be projected on the system. It is also important at this point to consider the condition of the structures (fences, apotreramiento, mills, gouaches, manga, pens, etc.), Analyzing the need and credit capacity for repair, modification or maintenance.
Biotype: is of fundamental importance to work with cattle breeds best suited to the area and this production system, this includes body size (medium to small frame) in the race for high loads, good health, fertility, docility, and also should seek to obtain the best prices on their final products (calves). In humid Pampa British breeds and their crosses, also crosses between British and continental small size; synthetic breeds, crossbreeding with Zebu breeds several other marginal areas.
Players: once defined the race, in the genetic management should be given the utmost importance to objective knowledge in the selection of bulls and cows that will shape the rodeo, which depend on the production environment. After defining the character of the race indicated for each company, the information will be analyzed today cabins provide the indicators related to reproductive fertility (semen quality, scrotal circumference, serviceability, and others). As also in production indicators (birth weight, growth rates, etc.), most recently butcher quality indicators (backfat thickness, intramuscular fat, ribeye area), all these features are now available in many cabins.
Pastures: as noted above, will be chosen sp forage more easily implanted in each area, and in turn that offer improved nutritional quality, production and persistence that allows the environment. There are various mixtures of forage species, and examples in the downtown area of the pampas in loam highlights the great behavior of mixtures of alfalfa or red clover, fescue and bromegrass (Bertin, O. and Scheneiter, O.); on heavier soils with some limitations, such as temporary flooding: Lotus, Melilotus, Ryegrass and wheatgrass, wheatgrass and melilotus in low saline (Grecco Fernández, A. and Brown, J.); NEA and NOA in the subtropical improved forage grasses: Panicum sp, rhodes grass and Melilotus. In western sandy mixtures with alfalfa and wheatgrass ryes.
So in the middle of the pampas in loam highlights the great behavior of mixtures of alfalfa, fescue and bromegrass (Bertin, O. and Scheneiter, O.) on heavier soils with some limitations, such as temporary flooding: Lotus, Melilotus, Ryegrass and wheatgrass, wheatgrass and melilotus in low saline (Grecco Fernández, A. and Brown, J.), in the NEA and NOA subtropical forage grasses and melilotus improved. In western sandy mixtures with alfalfa and wheatgrass ryes.
Rastrojos: during the autumn-winter crop stubble thick are used under direct grazing dry cows without herbicide application or “chemical fallow”, applying only “teeth”. The volume of crop residues of this action depends on agricultural yields obtained from corn and soybeans “gauchos”, as well as any leaks of summer grass weeds Lent. To these must be added the valuable resources and further development of its main RNFI natural species: capiqui, bowlesia and lamium. Soil type and not removing it, is crucial for moisture retention, which is favored by the presence of “living roots” and the development of green ground cover, which is held throughout the year ( Trossero, T.).
Pastures: Pasture use produced, will be under intensive rotational grazing, where the number and size of plots take into account rest periods and cutting height or residual forage needed for increased production and persistence species used. Always trying to “reap a tooth” the largest possible volume of grass in this system is not prioritized but both forage quality.
Rastrojos: agricultural residues and RNFI crop can be grazed continuously, without the need to make plots. Trying to spread the natural species in all batches through “bosteo” of animals. Using rotational grazing, allowing better distribution of animal manure and administer more use, but a large number of plots can greatly increase the instantaneous load and for long rainstorms determine a somewhat excessive grazing and trampling in some sectors . Besides these natural species do not require both breaks because its growth is continuous. The key is to determine the load that each area can support during this period, not sobrepastorearlos.
Sustainability: Soil conservation is one of the central objectives of the system, since it seeks to restore handling as many elements as the system extracts both crops and pasture–which is why animal manure (urine and dung) should not be taken to lock up (or bays pens), should always be in the field both in the pasture and in the stubble even on rainy days. But it is also necessary to know the soil nutrient balance through appropriate analysis, thus correcting the minerals that are in poor levels. It should be mentioned that producers make CBI in farmland of the core area, applied for several years in soil conservation practices and throughout the system. Furthermore, Taboada et al. are developing research in CBI fields in the area, assessing the physical effects of animal trampling on the ground vs. continuous cropping soil without livestock, preliminary results indicate that CBI did not show significant changes in the evaluated parameters and yield spreads in maize (Fernandez et al.).
Groundcover: this operation is intended to replace the concept of “chemical fallow” for “tooth fallow” in which favors the growth of the entire surface RNFI of lots into stubble. This coverage of live material or green, replace surface during grazing, much of the dead vegetation by herbicides in chemical fallow. Besides covering the ground the RNFI, provide structure and organic matter by roots, nitrogen by animal excretions, improving the ability to attract and retain water when spring rains occur, not affecting subsequent crop yields. Studies of the dynamics of soil water (Andriani, J.), show that while low moisture level of the soil with stubble grazing, the presence of live roots determined with the first spring rains quickly recovers profile water they will not affect subsequent crop yields (INTA EEA Oliveros).
Animal welfare: the property must be treated with calm and patience, without screaming and without punishment with batons, sticks, whips, whips or other, must also banished the use of dogs ‘bad’. If it is necessary according to the characteristics of some fields, there are dog breeds (Border Collie) that do not bark or irritate the cows, making it possible to use. Advances in ethology, study of animal behavior, help to understand the attitudes and reactions of cattle, which allows to determine the most appropriate treatment. The application of this new knowledge enables gentle breeding farm that is less work and get better quality beef for sale. If the herd is closed, or replacement females are born with this management, gets “CBI Education” from the beginning of his life, which greatly facilitates the daily work.
Livestock Staff: must integrate people who “like” the work in farming, who must receive regular training necessary to understand and address the needs of the different stages of intensive cattle breeding. Must be open-minded, willing to change if necessary some customs, and above all learn new ways to work with the farm. As an example of this, traveled to rodeos, never seem enough in calving season, and alfalfa in full production for the risk of filling. So to be increased as the need for each case.
Animal health: it is necessary to work with healthy animals, for which the linesman must recognize either a healthy animal, and therefore when you are ill, and so you know when it is time to seek the assistance of the veterinarian. Early diagnosis of an epidemic avoids large losses as well as to identify animals with time for treatment or culling. Knowing the breeding herd disease and its symptoms, are crucial when designing the herd health program. There are differences between areas and between fields, so that each company must have its own program. It should be noted that the intensification of the system means increased risk of disease transmission, and is of fundamental importance for the presence of a consulting veterinarian not only animal health but for the comprehensive management of the herd. The ultimate goal is to achieve biosecurity “gates inside” and also out. Because not only new diseases should not be introduced to the rodeo, but neither should pop out of the establishment.
Cattle Identification: is of paramount importance to identify all animals-by caravans, tattoos, microchips or other-from the moment of birth, which can improve production efficiency rodeo. By identifying each animal achieved the precision needed to run with the least error possible genetic selection, discards, treatments, etc. In short, enables better decision-making led to more appropriate management of the herd, but from each individual. On the other hand also gives the end-product traceability meat on the counter along the entire beef production chain.
Records: from the book of the linesman essential to using notebooks, books, spreadsheets or specific software, are all necessary to know the productive performance of each cow. It is very important this aspect because otherwise not reap the benefits of identification, thus losing the opportunity of effective productive herd improvement. Knowing the performance of each animal is able to select the best adapted to the system bellies according to: sexual precocity, beef type, maternal ability, growth rates, docility, as well as rejections due to faulty fertility, health, old age and others.
Livestock Management: Numbers in CBI is a central issue, because while not looking livestock farming competition, it is necessary that its economic performance is competitive or similar to harvest crops, otherwise it is more difficult to adoption. A central goal of this system is to achieve better complementarity between the two activities, looking for the best performance of both, and globally the company as a whole. For all the above, it is possible to analyze economically records activity.
Country Life: the CBI system is generated throughout the system life: “fields always live” with either crops or developing “green mulch” with RNFI, permanent pastures, cows with calves, and above all, there Life at camp permanently. This is because in this system, it is always necessary human presence, there is work for all year. Determining also the possibility of other practices such as poultry farming, consumer flocks of sheep, pigs and others, as well as orchards and fruit, which is also life.
Finally it should be added that modern practices like monocultures beyond extractive form a different scenario raised without animal presence and chemical fallow much time without any plant life, dominating the landscape the “dead areas”. All this suggests the need for environmental management, to assess the potential impact of this approach on the environment due to increased levels of the chemicals applied to crops. This may determine consequences on animal health, which may ultimately manifest as polluting waste to public health.
In addition, these systems require for handling increasingly less labor and less human presence, the work is only for a few months a year. Determining the rural exodus to the abandonment of homes and structures in the field, in other words we can conclude that leads to “taperización” field of all scales, gradually losing all rural development achieved over the years.
The consequences of people leave the countryside, go far beyond what meets the eye, because it loses much of the part of the place or the “payment”. You lose the value of localism, just lost local cultural values, local history, always looking closest large cities. The result is a deterioration not only “gates inside”, but also out. The people or places languish, fade away from generation to generation.
The small population remaining in the field, has less weight in the demand for services in general needs such as maintaining roads, electrification, shops are closed rural schools and hospitals are so young and small towns are disappearing . Largely leads to unemployment of skilled labor, which seek new ways of living is going to the big cities, which can not absorb more people. This leads to higher unemployment rates, generating poverty belts, with the consequent insecurity across the board that this implies. This unemployment affects not only the rural worker, but also affects the industrial workforce, involved in the industrialization of the meat, and also dedicated to making livestock inputs.
With the existence of agricultural production systems and livestock or mixed, not solve everything, but if you live by each establishment a marriage in the country again become “living areas”, besides increasing the jobs available labor , with consequent maintenance of all rural structures, can revive people condemned to disappear. It also increases safety in the field to be inhabited, and primarily aimed at developing rural land.